Current Biology Articles

Saturday, February 18, 2006

The Future Of Drug Testing - Hair Sampling

One may consider the hair as a person’s crowning glory. In fact, most people spend hours in front of the mirror fixing their hair. Aside from making each one of us look good, the hair has yet another function you might be interested in. In today’s modern world, there comes another way of detecting drugs in individuals. Yes, using the hair! And it is actually the most accurate method of detecting drug abuse in individuals. It can detect drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, opiates and the like. It is known as the hair drug test.
1. Ten Times More Effective Than Urine Drug Tests
With this kind of modern and convenient method, it is now easy for schools and even employers to test students and employees to determine whether or not they have drugs in their system. Hair drug tests come in handy kits with instructions on how to get hair specimens, then send it to the laboratory for evaluation.
2. How It Works:
According to studies, when a person takes in drugs, as with any other substances, such as food, medicines, or drinks, it mixes with our blood, and as we all know, the blood nourishes all parts of our body, including the head. Hints of these chemicals then become trapped or filtered through the hair follicle, thus, as the hair grows, these chemicals are stored in the hair. Interestingly, these chemicals become a part of the hair itself.
- Very accurate
- Chemicals in the hair can be traced
- Traces not just drugs in system at the time, but over the past three months!
- A two-inch sample can give that persons drug history for a four month period of time
- Hair drug testing is much more costly than urine testing
- Hair testing is now widely used due to it’s effectiveness
3. How It's Done:
- A hair drug test involves cutting a minimum of 50 strands of hair
- Hair must be cut approximately one and a half inches from the scalp
- Hair is then sent to the drug testing laboratory
- The hair is actually screened and reviewed, then liquified for final testing
- There are lots of hair drug testing kits available today
4. Hair Drug Testing Kits
Hair drug testing kits, though widely available, are not affordable. Prices range from $50-$69 for a complete kit. Laboratory processing fees are usually included when you make your purchase.
One point of view to consider tough - a positive test result does not automatically mean the person uses illegal drugs. In fact, positive results are sometimes triggered by other legal substances. One maybe is under medication or taking maintenance medications, or over-the-counter medications. It is wise therefore, that when the confirmation test comes back positive, it is important for a doctor, nurse, or other specialist to review the results and determine if illegal drugs are indeed the guilty party.
5. Beating Hair Drug Tests Is Impossible
Now other smart individuals are finding ways and means to beat the hair drug tests. Some say one can pass it through a kind of shampoo, especially from companies that claim that their shampoo cleans off all the toxins in the hair, but they are wrong. These toxins are already part of the hair follicle’s structure, cleaning it will literally mean taking it all off. The hair is like a plant. If a plant grows in a toxic environment, it will absorb toxins and toxins will become part of its structure - no amount of shampoo will change that.
As we cannot clean off toxins in the hair, can we mask it by bleach or dyeing one’s hair? Maybe for a time, yes we can. But then, our skin is made up of fatty tissues. These fatty tissues are responsible for storing toxins in the body. When our body sweats, it gives off skin oil and release toxins, and these will be touched and be absorbed by the hair. It’s like a cycle. The masked hair will then be contaminated once more.
Others shave off their hair, but sad to say, toxins don't leave the body anytime soon. If you are being kept in confinement, your hair will slowly grow back in, and your drug use history will come back for all to see with it.
For more great hair drug test related articles and resources check out
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Making Biodiesel At Home Using Waste Vegetable Oil

This article is for those who are a little more experienced at making biodiesel at home and who wish to progress from using straight vegetable oil to waste oil. As users of biodiesel fuel know vegetable oil will react very similarly to diesel fuel in a diesel engine. Like diesel fuel, biodiesel will ignite when compressed causing air in the engine cylinders to expand. This is the energy that pushes the engine pistons into motion.
The reason you must make biodiesel is that if you burned straight unprocessed oils in the diesel engine it would simply congeal and then clot your fuel injectors and engine like cholesterol hardening human arteries.
Read more on how to Make Your Own Biodiesel
There are many biodiesel recipes for removing the fatty acids from oil.
Here is a very common and reputable recipe for making biodiesel at home from waste oil.You will need:
Used or fresh vegetable oil (that has been strained so that it is free of particulates such as food crumbs)Lye MethanolIsopropyl Alcohol (99% IPA) eyedropper- or other type of 1 milliliter dropper PH paper (to test for acidity ) an old blender plastic or glass measuring cups or beakers, with metric measures-- and/or a gram scale plastic, glass or stainless stirrers and spoons, plastic buckets
1. Dissolve 1 gram NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide- Lye) in 1000 ml. of water. This is your NaOH solution. 2. Dissolve 1ml. of wasted vegetable oil in 10 ml. Isopropyl Alcohol(IPA). 3. With an eyedropper, drop the diluted NaOH into wasted vegetable oil mixture a milliliter at a time. Count the drops. After each drop check the ph level of the WVO solution with standard ph paper-- you will see an eventual rise in the ph level. Continue to add the NaOH solution into the WVO solution, a drop at a time, until it reaches a ph of 8-9.
To determine your proportions, figure: The number of drops of NaOH needed for the WVO solution to reach a ph of 8-9 1 ml. plus 3.5 g. NaOH to catalyze the oil.
Then go ahead and prepare a larger batch in your blender. Don't forget to clarify, settle and bubble wash this mixture as usual and remember to follow the usual safety precautions for making biodiesel at home.
Ash Ried is the author of numerous guides and articles on Biodiesel.You can find articles on How To Make And Use Biodiesel on his website.Click here to get free access
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Do It Yourself DNA Testing

DNA testing was popularized only in recent years mainly due to having it extremely handy when it comes to high-profile criminal investigations as well as in paternity cases. DNA, otherwise known as deoxyribonucleic acid, is most commonly used in trying to prove the relationship of an individual to another person, that linking is aimed at trying to determine whether or not those two people are related or not.
1. New Testing Methods
There are also various new tests that have been created in recent years, however, which have also turned to DNA testing, a highly popular tool for determining a person’s ancestry. As DNA is passed down from one generation of your family to the next, there are some parts that still remain almost unchanged. This creates the highly unbreakable link between family generations and through DNA testing. DNA testing can also be of great help when trying to reconstruct one’s family history
2. Paternity Tests
However, DNA testing, in spite of its many benefits is not able to provide you with your entire family tree or be able to tell you who your ancestors are. DNA testing can, however, determine if you are related to the other person whom you have the test with. DNA testing can also determine if you and that other person have a same ancestor. DNA testing will also be able to provide you with the information that you will be needing in order to prove or negate the research you have been able to obtain about your family tree. Lastly, through DNA testing, you will be provided with clues in regards to your ethnic origin.
3. How DNA Testing Works
DNA testing has been around for so many years yet is has only gotten quite a following only recently since a lot of people can not afford the incredibly high rates that they will be charged for their DNA testing. However, there are home DNA testing kits which can either be ordered through the mail or even over the internet at a price which is still befitting of one’s budget (less that $300 to be exact) and all you have to do is to just be able to obtain a sample of your cells through a cotton swab or through a mouthwash, it really is fairly easy to do.
Then you have to be able to send those samples back to the lab for your DNA testing wherein you will have to wait for around a month or even two months before you get the results of your DNA testing. The DNA testing results are a series of numbers that represent the key chemical markers within your DNA. These numbers can be compared with the results from other individuals who took the DNA test in order to help you determine your ancestry.
When it comes to DNA testing, one must be extremely patient waiting for the results - and whatever the result you get from your DNA test, just accept it as the tests are over 99% accurate.
For more great dna testing related articles and resources check out
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Preventing Tobacco Beetles in Cigars

I hate cigar termites as I call them, commonly refered to as tobacco beetles. I'll never forget my first glimpse into a box of Cuban Montecristo that these heartless monsters shredded. It looked as if the cigars had been shot from a short distance with bird shot sized pellets. All of the care and hard work involved in growing the tobacco, and then handrolling the cigars, all of the endless months and years of aging, and the eventual painful purchase price was all a big waste of time and money. What an absolute disapointment opening this box of cigars on a special occasion would be. It would surely dampen the mood, and probably make it somewhat somber, especially if there are other serious cigar smokers around that understand what has happened.
The 2-3 millimeter adult tobacco beetle and his sibling clones can gash their way through a box of precious Monte's just as quick as a box of el cheapo's because they do not discriminate. If you experience repeated infestations, my advice is to deep freeze every cigar that comes into your possession. The process is quite simple: Make a spot in your freezer large enough to accommodate your smokes. Put the cigars, boxes and all, into the freezer for 3 days. Remove them from the freezer after the 72 hour wait and transport them to the lowest shelf in your refrigerator, the crisper it's called on some models. Leave them there for 24 hours. Don't take them directly back into the room atmosphere as this will cause rapid thawing resulting in swelling, which will result in a tear soaked funeral for the smokes.
During the wait it's a good idea to clean your humidor with a damp cloth in hopes of catching any of the stray larva which may be resting on the boxes floor. Never use any cleaners or pesticides inside your humidor or it will forever smell of the chemicals applied which will render it useless for the storage of your cigars. Clean, preferably distilled water is the only moisture source you should use when cleaning the walls of your spanish cedar built humidor.
Lift the box onto it's side and brush downward with the cloth, cleaning the floor and sending the "no-see-ems" down to the side panel of the box. Pay close attention to the final wipe down in this area, cleaning into the corners and wiping toward the top of the box, or "out" of the open lid, hence sending any loose particles away from your humidors interior surfaces. If it is small enough, lift the humidor overhead with the lid open and the box upside down. Have an assistant reach in with the cloth and wipe the box out. Another great idea is to use compressed air to thoroughly blast away all of the future bugs. Either way you decide to do it, this is an important step towards beetle annihilation so wipe and wipe and then wipe some more. If even one larva is left inside your box, the freezer treated cigars or any other cigars that you add, will probably become re infested.
Since beetles prefer a temperature of 74F and above, you should try to keep your humidor at a lower range of around 68F-70F, even a touch cooler is preferable as opposed to warmer.
Finally, if all else has failed and your supply has been ravaged by the insatiable muncher of puros, there is one last course of action. Take the entire infested box, cigars and all, and toss it onto a burn pile, douse it with kerosene and throw a match onto it. This method is of course expensive, but the tiny little cries of those notorious devils, and the fact that they can never reproduce and spread their evil seeds to another smokers stash can become a tempting fix for someone frustrated with tobacco beetles.
Ed Brown is owner/operator of Tarheel Cigars - Discount Smoke Shop located on the web at
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Ancient Meteor Impact May Hold Key to Uranium Exploration Success at Cluff

“I look at about 100 different projects a year, most of which go into the round filing cabinet on my floor,” said Tony Harvey, the senior technical advisor to ESO Uranium (TSX: ESO), and formerly a senior manager of Wright Engineers-Fluor Daniels, which was involved with the design and construction of 14 mines worldwide. Harvey quickly ticked off what is necessary to attract his eye, “I need to see history. I need to see signposts before I give it any credence.” So why is he advising little-known ESO Uranium, after a long, prolific career?
“I believe this one has a huge amount of history,” Harvey argued. “Not only have you got the Cluff Lake mine, which already confirms the presence of uranium, but you have got the Shea Creek drilling intercepts which validate it. We have the conductors streaming onto our property. We have the boulders, which is also another sign post.” The boulders, of which Tony Harvey refers, are the six uranium-mineralized boulders near the ESO Uranium project on the company’s Cluff property. Near those boulders, a promising drill hole from the 1970s indicated 0.85% U3O8 over 2.3 meters. It was all but forgotten until the recent explosion of exploration activity in Saskatchewan’s Athabasca Basin, an area which has helped Cameco (NYSE: CCJ) grow into a company with a market capitalization of nearly $12 billion.
What ESO Uranium’s geological team will be looking for at the company’s Cluff property are Cluff Lake style uranium deposits in basement rocks with the Carswell structure close to the unconformity with sandstones of the Athabasca group. That was allegedly created by the meteor's impact.
Drilling in the Meteor’s Wake
“The value of the ore extracted at the Cluff mine, in today’s terms, would be equivalent to $2.6 billion,” explained Harvey. “That’s how much was extracted at the Cluff mine.” The company’s vice president of exploration, Benjamin Ainsworth, who is both a senior geologist and a mining engineer, helped explain the Cluff structure. “A meteorite probably impacted at this location and with sufficient force to break right through the layers of Athabasca sandstone on the surface. On rebound, basement rocks got lifted back up. In bouncing back out, it also lifted up the surrounding Athabasca rocks and tipped them up, if you can imagine, like an opening flower.” As a result, the basement got lifted up to the surface and made it easier to find and mine the uranium at Cluff. Ainsworth added, “The significance of that for me and our group is that shows very high grade uranium deposits in the western side of Athabasca.”
Drilling a property helps the geological team better understand the area. Since the Cluff property was mined out, two decades ago, additional scientific study has opened up new doors. At the 67th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting, University of Quebec Earth Science professors presented a paper entitled, “A Re-Evaluation of the Size of the Carswell Astrobleme.” The Montreal scientists concluded in the 2004 annual conference held in Brazil, “The Carswell impact structure is therefore older and larger than previously estimated… the central uplift considered to be under the annular dolomitic unit would suggest a crater size in the basement of 118 to 125 kilometers wide.” While some believe the meteor hit about 478 million years ago, recent evidence suggests it may have been closer to 1.8 billion years ago.
Ainsworth warned there is a lot of risk in drilling for uranium deposits. “The geometry of these things is damn small.” ESO president Jonathan George pointed out that the world’s richest uranium deposit, McArthur River, hosting about 400 million pounds of uranium, had half of its deposit in an area about half the size of a football field. “I think that’s mind boggling,” he said, “that a $7 billion project would be on an area that small.”
James Finch writes about stocks at His articles about uranium and uranium stocks have been featured in major U.S. newspapers, network television, and most recently noted on MSNBC. You can read the archived article by James Finch at
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The heat required to make ceramics is enough to make many smelted metals especially with the fluxes we have proof were known in ancient times. Spalling as a mining technique in Lake Superior lead to the discovery of the use of zinc as a flux and I have artifacts to prove this. Unfortunately I will have to personally fund the study of these or they will never get the research they deserve. I know a lot of people find it hard to imagine our governments are engaged in destroying artifacts like the Kennewick Man site and things that I and many others have. I have not seen any academic suggest that some people learned smelting while making ceramics some 26,000 years ago.
“Today, we meet a 26,000-year-old lady. The University of Houston's College of Engineering presents this series about the machines that make our civilization run, and the people whose ingenuity created them.
She really cuts a remarkable figure. Her fired clay body is 4½ inches tall, with exaggerated hips and breasts. She leaves no doubt about the artist's intent. This was to be the unmistakable image of woman. Archaeologists call her the Dolni Vestonice Venus, after the Czechoslovakian site where they found her. Her 26,000-year age is astonishing. This Upper Paleolithic figurine is 14,000 years older than the first ceramic pots and jars.
The Dolni Vestonice Venus is part of the oldest known set of ceramic sculpture. She was no isolated fluke. We find two kilns on the site. They were surrounded by 7000 fired ceramic fragments. Our Stone Age ancestors weren't fooling around. They were seriously producing art objects.” (1)
The Venus attributes of the statue are of primary importance to the Sea (Mer) o’ VN –yanns or Merovingian elites including the Benjaminites and House of David or Judah in Israel who are also the House of Mallia and Milesian Stuarts in other times and places. The extent of the Venus knowledge may be very old indeed. The Berekhat Ram figurine is probably 400,000 years old. And that brings us to another question – who gave the white men this level of technology in Czechoslovakia? It is a valid question just as it is unimaginable to me that no one has suggested that these people would have learned about smelting. The question of who gave this knowledge to man has been answered by myth-makers saying it was aliens. But I know these myth-makers are part of the same family that ran the secret trade in all these things and then created all the religions and nations so I am not inclined to buy their Anunnaki or Elohim alien G-d nonsense. But that leads me to have to return to archaeomythological approaches which many academics will find fault with. I am getting used to being attacked by people who do not do the research on calcium from brushite and human bones such as came from Keltic Wickermen. I am tired of their mewling ignorance of Harmonics and the chants that legends tell us the Mungo Man was adept at. I know of Thor’s hammer and the Sword of Nuada before it became the Excalibur Grail myth. And I know about the pygmies in the time of Hyksos Pharaohs like Hatschepsut. The Murrhine vases that turned salt water potable (though perhaps over many years still toxic) used brushite or human bones. Calcium is also important in space age technology like superconductivity. The ability to travel the ocean without huge casks of water made the Phoenicians far more successful and profitable.
I also know that a celt is a tool hammered from rocks with lots of copper before some people had smelting secrets. And that causes me to ask all those who call themselves Celts to remember their history is not the Roman epithet that sought to brand them as ‘hammered tools’.
Author of many books available at Lulu and
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Is There Scientific Evidence For A Soul?

Is everything really explainable by science? Or does the human body show physical evidence of a Divine Origin?
The axiom a "whole is equal to the sum of its parts" holds true in physics and mathematics as well as biology. It seems so logical that one wonders why such an axiom even needs to be postulated. But is it really all that logical? There is a case in which the sum of an entity's parts do not seem to add up to its whole. No, I'm not talking about black holes, quantum particles, virus mutations or * infomercials. I'm talking about the human being. The biological components of the homosapien do not seem to add up to what we call the human being.
Strictly on a biological level, it all gives the impression of fitting together very nicely. For example, we all know that the heart pumps blood, and it is usually strain or the deprivation of oxygen to this natural pump that results in heart attacks. By the same token, it is the deprivation of oxygen to the brain which can lead to a stroke or even death. The components which come into play here become more obvious upon a more detailed analysis of the circulatory system.
The heart consists basically of four chambers; the right and left atriums, and the right and left ventricles. The heart's function is to keep the blood oxygenated by pumping it past the lungs, which absorb oxygen and expel carbon dioxide. Although beating approximately 2.5 billion times in an average lifetime is quite an amazing feat, how the heart accomplishes its task is not at all that mysterious. The heart's components -- chambers, veins, arteries, etc. -- propel the circulatory system, a mechanical process which we quite readily understand.
Similarly, the liver, our largest organ, serves as the body's chemical factory. Some of the chemicals it produces are: albumin, which regulates the exchange of water between blood and tissues; complement, proteins which help the immune system fight infection; coagulation factors, which help the blood clot when blood vessels are damaged; globin, a part of the pigment known as hemoglobin, which carries oxygen throughout the body. In addition, the liver produces cholesterol and special proteins that help carry fats around the body.
This is of course an oversimplified description of an extremely complex organ. In fact, the liver's complexities make a practical artificial liver a lot farther from reality than an artificial heart. Yet, in spite of its complexities, the liver's basic functions are not really great mysteries. That is, although precisely how the liver produces and regulates the body's chemistry may still be far from understood, the notion of producing chemicals or regulating circulating fluids are not exactly mystical concepts. Such chemical functions are performed on a daily basis in laboratories and in many man-made devices.
To sum it up, what the above two organs have in common is that in their cases the "whole is equal to the sum of its parts;" i.e their underlying mechanical principles work satisfactorily as a whole within the context of the living body as well as isolated components within a laboratory setting.
The brain, however, is a little different. The brain and spinal cord comprise the central nervous system, and control virtually every vital function of the body; thought, speech, heart beat, breathing, body temperature, etc. It is believed that the cerebral cortex (the outer portion of the cerebrum) is where movement, sensation, memory and perception, among other things, are processed. Some of these functions are similar to those of other organs in the sense that, in spite of their awesome complexity, their mechanical processes have parallels in man-made objects or in the laboratory.
Computers are excellent examples of how huge amounts of data and images can be stored and transferred in man-made objects. Electrical impulses are utilized in both computers and the brain, although their processes may not necessarily be identical. So, with respect to the purely mechanical process of memory and the transmission of data or impulses, the brain and nervous system hold no great mysteries. As with the liver, the precise processes employed by the brain may be far from understood, but man understands many of the functions performed and has in some cases reproduced their effects.
But this is where the familiarity with the brain ends. After all the sophistication and miracles of modern medicine, biology and biogenetics, the concept of intellect remains a total mystery. There is no substance known to man, either within the human body or the lab, that will produce intellect. To scan the brain, as some scientists have done, with an imaging device and track down the parts of the brain that come into play under certain intellectual pursuits is not the same as isolating a substance that produces intellect. We may know that the brain is the seat of the intellect, but that says nothing about what intellect is or what substance, if any, produces it. A rough analogy might be, determining what part of an engine contains combustion says nothing about how fuel is produced or where it comes from.
Upon dissection of the human brain, aside from some jelly-type matter, nerve fibers and perhaps neurotransmitters, all of which come into play in our thought and motor functions, there emerges not a shred of evidence of a substance that produces a sense of humor, the appreciation of art, or the ability to differentiate between good and evil. Even if not the precise method, at least a clue as to how these human qualities are produced would, I think, have been in order at this advanced stage of the twenty-first century. But nothing! Zilch! This seems to fly in the face of the principle a "whole is equal to the sum of its parts:" whereas the human brain seems to be the seat of consciousness, its biological components do not seem to possess the potential of producing such a quality.
Is it possible that "consciousness" actualy is a separate entity and has no physical roots? And can it's effect on humans be taken as proof that such an entity exists? "Black holes," despite the fact that they cannot be directly detected, are universally accepted as science.
A black hole in astronomy is a celestial object of such extremely intense gravity that it attracts everything near it and prevents even light from escaping. Because light and other forms of energy and matter are permanently trapped inside a black hole, it can never be observed directly. It can only be detected by the effect of its gravitational field on nearby objects. Yet, as undetectable as they are, black holes are considered as real and as scientific as planets and stars.
In the same way, consciousness can be "proven" to have its own existence by the effect it has on humans, giving them qualities such as reasoning abilities, appreciation of art, humor, etc. Unlike a black hole, however, since we cannot prove the existence of any physical substance or process that can produce such features, consciousness takes on a unique existence -- an effect without a physical origin. Call it what you will, but this precisely coincides with the age-old concept of a "soul."
I realize that a soul in itself may not be a scientific concept. But when you can prove its features and qualities as surely as you can prove a black hole's effect on its environment, you have effectively proven its existence. Unlike a black hole, it's origin does not appear to be physical, but, very much like a black hole, it definitely reveals itself within its environment.
Unscientific, at this point, would be to deny that an entity exists that gives human beings their unique intellectual features. There is no question that it exists. The only question is, what do you call it? If "soul" is to religious sounding for you, call it what you will, but there is definitely something at work here that is not of a physical nature.
If you don't believe a "soul" has been proven here, you may want to start questioning things like black holes. Nobody will prove them to you any better.
Josh Greenberger: A computer consultant for over two decades, the author has developed software for such organizations as NASA's Goddard Institute of Space Studies, AT&T, Charles Schwab, Bell Laboratories and Chase Manhattan Bank. Since 1984, the author's literary works have appeared in such periodicals as The New York Post, The Daily News, The Village Voice, The Jewish Press, and others. His articles have ranged from humor to scientific to topical events. Visit his site:
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Goal Setting: If I Don't Know Where I Am Going - How Do I Know If I Got There?!

Setting goals is the first step in achieving them. Without a mark to hit, you never really know what you're aiming at. In fact, most of us set goals without even realizing it. Maybe it's our goal to wake up tomorrow morning at 6:00 a.m. for work. Or perhaps we have a goal to watch the latest episode of our favorite show on TV this week. The truth is, we set goals every day. Goals and dreams are close relatives. Your goals in life will constantly change. Your previous goals could have consisted of going for that "A" in biology...or maybe just getting up in time to make the biology class! Now your goals can take you to a rewarding and prosperous future with the help of a few of the guidelines.
Your Dream/Goal List
Let's do a dream list of everything you've ever wanted. Ask yourself, what would you do with your life if you had unlimited time, talent and money? What do you want to do, be, see, have or experience--to learn, change, create, improve or eliminate? This is a starting point -- a place to begin pulling out the important ones -- the ones that may become goals. You also should have a current handle on where you are in the various areas of your life. Now it's time to do some sorting and filtering of the items on your Dream List. Now we begin to focus in on those things that really inspire you to your highest and best.
I'm a firm believer you can accomplish anything you want in life.
Notice I did not say EVERYTHING you wish to accomplish; I said ANYTHING. If someone else has already done it, you can do it, too. If NO ONE has done it, you can be the first. Nothing is impossible. I didn't say, however, that it would be easy. Only you can decide whether or not your goal is worth going for. Your determination will make it work. But it has to be something big enough and important enough to be worthy of your best. Out of the dozens of items on your Dream List, you will want to select twelve. Write these goals down in your journal or on a 3x5 card. From this list of 12, you'll further narrow it down to three. These are your top three key goals. The goals you'll be devoting most of your efforts to achieving. This process is not something you do in 15 to 20 minutes. This requires some concentrated and focused attention. Try carving out three hours over the course of the next week. An hour at a time would be great.
Don't Think it -- INK it.
I could spend a lot of time selling you on the power of writing your goals down. Instead, in the interest of time, I'll ask you to trust me. Verbal agreements are legal and binding. The problem is, they're open to too much interpretation. There is too much chance for 'he said -- she said,' issues. As a result, for any important agreement, we create written documents to help us make sure everything is clear and nothing is forgotten over time. And what could be more important than our dreams and goals? If you're serious about accomplishing your aspirations, you've simply have to write them down. Remember: 'With a written agreement, you have a prayer; with a verbal agreement, you've got nothing but air.' Write your goals down, CLEARLY. Write them in the PRESENT tense: 'I now have, I now am, etc'. Write them where you'll see them often, like the bathroom mirror or refrigerator. Write them in color or cut out pictures. The next step is to formulate a strategy for reaching your goal.
Action Plan:
Make a list of everything you have done in the last month to achieve your goals. Next to each item, make a mark. Write "A" if it is an action. Write "T" if it is a thought. If you don't end up with at least 80% of your time spent on positive actions, promise yourself that you will make a change. Don't think about making a change. Do it.
Now some KEYS to successfully begin:
Take responsibility for the current condition of your life. If you don't have what you want, it's nobody's fault but yours.
Figure out what you want and set specific goals. Write them down.
Write a long and a short-term plan to develop the skills you need and achieve those goals.
Work at least 50 hours a week following your plans.
Spend the first few hours of every day completing the Important-but-Not-Urgent tasks on your to-do list.
Develop a network to help you. Do this via phone calls, e-mails, and personal notes. Use that network whenever you can.
If and when you feel like giving up, persist.
(Please notice that most of these tasks involve actions, not thoughts.)
Now it is time for Your Proclamation: What I will do to Reach My goals
I will design a "Goal Agreement" with myself for any goal, no matter how small or large. A goal, no matter how small, will be treated with great respect because I know goals help make me a better person ---the person I want to be.
My Goal Agreement will be written down and I will date the "Goal Agreement" with the starting date and completion date for each goal.
My goal will be described in detail. I will paint a very clear picture in my mind of what I want, how, and when I will get it.
All of my Goal Agreements that have not been completed will be read in front of the mirror every day with a lot of enthusiasm. That way, my goals will be fresh in my mind and I will remember them easily.
When a goal is reached, I will sign the Goal Agreement. I will write in large red letters on the front of the Goal Agreement "I have achieved this goal." I will save all my Goal Agreements so I can see how I am doing and see all of my successes so far. I will become a better, stronger person from this string of successes, no matter how small some of them may be.
I will always remember, I CAN BE AS GREAT AS ANYONE. I will have a plan. Each of my goals, no matter how small, will become a part of that plan and will help me to turn my beautiful dreams into a wonderful and happy life.
I will make sure my goals go together. I won't set goals for different things that won't work together.
My goals will be something I want so much that I'll be excited to do the work it takes to get it done. I will do everything with enthusiasm.
Setting goals is very important to me. It's not a joke or silly. I know I can't reach a place I want to go if I do not know how to get there. I know it's the same way with life. These goals become my plan for my every success.
I choose to take the goals very seriously no matter how small each goal is. I will reward myself and praise myself for starting the habit of planning my life.
If I want my life to change, I understand I have to change, or I will stay just about the same as I am right now. So, I will set some goals that get me excited and move me and my life on the right track to happiness and success.
Now you are on your way to a fulfilling and exciting future!
Joe Kahler is recognized as an expert on helping young adults successfully transition from home to being “out on their own”. His latest work has recently been assembled in his book, Out On My Own... Now What? Tips and Insights So You Won’t Be Left Hanging in the “Real World”!
Joe received his undergraduate degree from Whittier College in Social Sciences and his Masters in Education from Arizona State University. His experience includes teaching, coaching, running numerous businesses, investing, selling insurance and real estate AND attending numerous personal, “hard knocks” training classes!
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A Brief Look At Evolution

In a world dominated by religious dogma, where people turned to the Church both moral guidance and rational inquiries, two Englishmen offered a theory that challenged the old ways and unified the study of biology. Though history has credited Charles Darwin as the source of both natural selection and evolution, his lesser known colleague, Alfred Russel Wallace (A.R Wallace) had independently arrived at the conclusion. The experiences that formulated both versions of evolution were independent in time and location, illustrating that the phenomena was not unique to any one temporal or geographic location.
The concept of natural selection (as understood today) began with the HMS Beagle, a 235 tonne brig sloop, on which Charles Darwin travelled for five years. Though the ship was not commissioned to radically alter the face of biology, it inevitably helped its now famous passenger to do just that. Joining Captain Robert FitzRoy as an unpaid gentlemen, Charles Darwin looked forward to the opportunity to pursue his love for geology in South America. During the five year journey, Darwin had the opportunity to visit a group of small islands off the coast of present day Ecuador called the Galapagos. Darwin, a budding naturalist, spent a great deal of time collecting samples for later study and taking meticulous notes on rock formations and geological trends. As an after thought he embellished in the crews custom of collecting various species of birds from the locations visited. This tradition would set Darwin on the road to discover natural selection.
Though the birds played little role in his writings subsequent to his voyage, they ultimately gave him a reference to which he could ground his theory of natural selection. Darwin eventually returned to the birds after John Gould, an ornithologist, revealed that what Darwin thought were a series of different species of birds were in fact, all varying species of Finch. Intrigued, he began to pore over his notes quickly discovering, or re-discovering, that each species of finch had a distinctive bill, unique to a particular food source that was abundant to the island it was obtained.
Reading the ideas of economist Thomas Malthus, Darwin began to formulate the foundations for evolution. Malthus argued that a human population growing unchecked would double every 25 years. Because no environment can sustain infinite growth, there was intense competition for the finite resources available. Building on Mathuses idea, Darwin was able to apply the concept of competition for finite resources to the observations made during his journey to the Galapagos.
Variation between individuals of a species exists when combined with limited resources leads to competition. Darwin theorized that if the preceding statement was true, that species with advantageous variations would more likely survive then those without. This idea would explain the variation in the bills of finches he saw across the Galapagos, and explain why each bill was specialized to a specific resource abundant in the area that species of finch was found. Darwin coined the term natural selection to describe the process by which only favorable variations survive.
Though Darwin's roots as a geologist and his study of Charles Lyells, Principles of Geology , planted the seed for belief that great changes were the outcome of gradual processes over huge periods of time, Darwin did not apply this idea to biology until his study of fossils.
In 1837 Darwin began making detailed notes of evolution. Studying homologous structures, vestigial organs and embryological development of living species gave him ample evidence that evolution was occurring. Once natural selection became the avenue for explaining why evolution occurred, Darwin had amassed a huge amount of evidence for his theory. His facts eventually took the form of a 230 page essay written over two years, titled The Origin of Species.
Though he arrived at the same conclusion as Charles Darwin, A.R Wallace did so at a later date, taking a different route. Unlike his famous counterpart, Wallace was not interested in geology or rock formations; his goal was to solve the riddle of the origin of species. Like Darwin, Wallace chose South America as his destination to find an answer to the riddle. He found both evidence and bad luck. Concluding his voyage two years later due to an illness, A.R. Wallace decided to return to England and begin cataloging the large collection he had amassed. On his voyage home his ship caught fire and sank, taking with it a substantial portion of his samples. Determined not to let a little bad luck inhibit his thirst for knowledge, Wallace left for Indonesia two years later. It was during the eight years A.R. Wallace spent in Indonesia where he came up with his theory of speciation via survival of the fittest.
Unlike Darwin, Wallace did not study finches to formulate his theory, rather, Wallace observed a slew of organisms including the Rhacophorus Nigropalmatus, or the flying frog. Like Darwin, Wallace observed how geographic separation seemed to cause speciation amongst similar individuals. He too eventually connected these observations back to Thomas Malthus, eventually authoring a mechanism to how such change occurred. He called what Darwin referred to as natural selection, "survival of the fittest". The "survival of the fittest" concept used by Wallace was similar to Darwin's but not identical. Both agreed that some sort of selection occurred, but while Wallace described it as a natural phenomena, Darwin used selective breeding as a means to explain and understand the mechanism.
In essence, A.R Wallace arrived at the same conclusions that Darwin had some twenty years before. When he sent Darwin an early manuscript of his findings, Darwin realized that he could no longer hold back his results. Darwin himself described Wallace’s manuscript as an excellent summary of his original findings. After discussing the awkward situation with fellow scientists, Darwin published his paper and gave special mention to A.R Wallace and his work. Though Darwin received credit for the work they both arrived at the same conclusions. This final destination of sorts laid the foundation for future generations to regard the "Theory of Evolution" as more than just theory, but fact.
The affect of the publication was immediate, yet both viewed it in different contexts. Being a devout Christian, Darwin did not see evolution as contradictory to the world view as according to the Bible. He credited God for evolution and its mechanism, natural selection implying God may have created life, but natural selection is the mechanism for which life evolved. Wallace on the other hand horrified Darwin with his turn to "spiritualism".
The debate over the social and cultural implications was immediate. Evolution and natural selection were deemed heresy by the church and condemned as unchristian beliefs. Though scientists had a better understanding of what Darwin and Wallace were trying to convey, the general public were manipulated into thinking evolution was a theory of how they were a monkeys uncle. The misinformation and misinterpretation of exactly what evolution theorizes continues to this day. The most recent incarnation of the debate comes in the form of evolution versus Intelligent Design.
The debate is based on a core misunderstanding of not only what the theory of evolution expresses, but also the definition of a theory. A theory is a systematic and formalized expression of all previous observations made that is predictive, logical, testable and has never been falsified. Evolution is a scientific theory because it meets these criteria. Though Intelligent Design and alternative explanations offer critiques of evolution, they do not propose testable, predictive alternatives. Critiques do not qualify as scientific theories, yet many mask themselves as such.
Intelligent design for example offers two main critiques of evolution; the concept of specified complexity (also known as the "Watchmaker Hypothesis") and the Fine Tuned Universe argument. The prior makes the following claim; if a person is walking across a beach and comes across a pebble, they think nothing of it believing that it has been there by chance. If however, that person comes across a Rolex watch, it is obvious that someone must have placed it there. The minute intricacies of the watch leads one to the obvious conclusion that it must have been designed. Similarly, the minute intricacies of the human cell leads one to the obvious conclusion that a greater intelligence had a hand in its existence.
This argument works only in the narrowest of context. When taken further, the watchmaker argument poses a significant philosophical problem. If the watch had a watchmaker, who designed the watchmaker? Intelligent Design advocates offer the idea of an "uncaused causer", or a God like figure to solve this problem. This in itself is a contradiction to the original argument that complexity requires design. In essence, we begin reasoning in circles.
The Fine Tuned Universe is another attempt at a critique of evolution. The argument states that the emergence of life as we know it is dependent on variables so finely tuned that it must have been designed. Proponents of Darwinian Evolution dismiss this argument as one based on ignorance and lack of imagination. If variables including the charge of an electron were slightly different, life as we know it may not exist - but that does not mean life will not exist at all. More than likely, if given enough time life would exist, just in a different form. Bacteria living in thermal vents offer evidence to support proponents of Darwinian Evolution. Rather than using carbon as the building block of life, these bacteria evolved using sulfur as their major organic component.
? It is blatantly clear that critiques of Evolution are religiously motivated and based on misinterpretation of what evolution claims. It should be noted that evolution makes no claim of the existence of a "designer", rather evolution offers us a vehicle to explain the changes that have led to the variety of species seen today. Though both Darwin and Wallace may not have known it at the time, their research has led to one of the most controversial theories in science as well as one that has unified the study of biology.
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Plastic Forming - Vacuum Forming Guide

What is vacuum forming? What does it do? What are the methods used in forming vacuums? Vacuum forming is basically the procedure used in shaping any kind of plastic. The shaping of unusual shapes like dishes, boxes and others is called Vacuum forming process. The simplest explanation to its method is by placing the mould into an oven, heated for it to take shape and cooled within a significant amount of time. The advantages of using vacuum forming as a method is limitless and effective. Majority of the vacuum forming products are affordable, since not many produce vacuum forming products. The moulds could be made of low-costing materials and the process of the vacuum forming could be possibly faster than any forming process.
- The most common product made using vacuum forming is a simple plastic toy
- All of the process used includes three important stages. Heating, shaping and cooling.
- There are factors that would be vital in the process selection of the vacuum forming.
- Quantities of the product
- Material of the product
- Shape and details of the product
- Final product’s shape and size
1. Clamping process
The clamp or the fastener gives security to the materials being processed. By using this vacuum forming method, you could process even the thickest materials. It is important that the frame of the clamps is strong for the materials not to move during the whole vacuum forming process.
2. Heating process
This vacuum forming method makes use of infra-red heaters and aluminum plates. Although this kind of process is usually handles by larger machines, it could former thicker plastics rapidly. The heaters are located both above the aluminum plates and below it, to produce quality outcomes.
3. Bubble
When the plastic material is inside the machine and it has reached the temperature needed for it to form, this method pre-stretches the plastic to give a smoother outcome product. The bubble method is important because it could assure that unusual shaping materials with extraordinary angles could be reached by the heat.
4. Sheet level
This method involves an electric beam inside the machine that inspects the plastic material and the bottom heater. This method is used when the plastic starts to sag. When the plastic sags, the beam would automatically break down and a quantity of air would enter the machine causing the sagginess to stop.
6. Vacuum
This vacuum forming method pre-stretches the plastic material. The vacuum serves as assistance in the forming of quality sheets. There are two vital parts in a vacuum - the vacuum tank and the vacuum pump. These two parts enable the machine to rapidly mold the hot sheets.
Once the materials have been shaped and formed, a cooling procedure is done before releasing the plastic.
- Cooling is important because when the materials are released, the molds would become deformed and would cause a rejected outcome
- High speed fans are made use to fasten the cooling process. There is also an option in using s spray mist which is directed into the product sheet
- When cooled, it is inserted again into the machine to perform a reverse pressure method that strips excess product from the mould
7. Finishing Up
There are several trimming methods that could be used in vacuum forming. These methods would depend on the size of the part, production number needed, the kind of trimming, and the material’s thickness. The finishing of the product or the post-forming processes depends upon the materials processed in the vacuum forming method. Some finishing includes designing, printing of decorations, strengthening of the product and construction. Although there are many kinds of method used in forming plastics, you could always make use of the easiest method - vacuum forming. Anybody could do it. With just the right tools and these friendly procedures, you could make your own toy in a jiffy.
For more great vacuum forming related articles and resources check out
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Breaking The Silence - Forensic Nursing

It was in 1992 when the term Forensic nursing was first heard. But what is it exactly? Forensic nursing is a specialty field that deals with the care of crime victims, collecting evidences and providing health care services in the prison system. It is a combined health care and judicial system profession to be precise. International Association of Forensic Nurses (IAFN) is the official association of forensic nurses established in 1992 by a team of nurses who specialize in sexual assault examination.
1. A Day In The Life
Contrary to popular belief forensic nurses don’t spend their day hanging around with corpses. Examining victims of sexual assault and training colleagues how to treat violently injured patients eat up most of these nurses days. Another related job for a forensic nurse is providing counsel to schoolchildren who fired guns.
2. Training
Training as a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner is the entry-level position you need to obtain in order to break into forensic nursing. The nurse should be a Registered Nurse (RN) before being able to complete the specialized training needed to meet the standards of the IAFN. Forty hours of didactics and forty hours of clinical work are also needed. The nurse should be trained in handling and collecting evidences like hairs, fibers and swabs of fluids for DNA testing.
Forensic nursing is not limited to helping rape victims. Forensic nurses also work with other types of interpersonal abuse such as domestic violence, child and elderly abuse, neglect and physiological, as well as psychological abuse. They could also examine victims of near-fatal or fatal traumas like shooting or stabbing.
A lot of forensic nurses work as nurse examiners in the emergency rooms in the hospitals. In cases like shooting or stabbing, the forensic nurse works in collecting bullets and other debris left in the body that will help in the investigation. Removing the clothes the victim is wearing and storing them in a special bags are also some of their duties. They also have to photograph and measure the wounds of the patients. In case the victim dies, the nurse has to work with the medical examiner (ME).
3. Other Considerations
Forensic nurses are qualified to testify in court as an expert witness or a fact witness. As an expert witness, the nurse is allowed to give his or her opinions while on the witness stands in order to shed light on the case. On the other hand, as a fact witness, the nurse is only to state the details and answer the questions. A forensic nurse should state the information in an objective manner. It means that he or she should not speak for or against either the victim or the accused. As the duty calls for it, the nurse only has to state the information he or she obtained, not make conjecture about what he or she thinks happened.
4. Tools of the Trade
A forensic nurse should also know how to use different tools in order to document what he or she has gathered during the examination or treatment process.
- A digital camera- An Omnichrome- A Coloscope
To date, specialty areas are being related to forensic nursing. This includes a Forensic Nurse Specialist, Forensic Nurse Investigator, Nurse Coroner or what is known as Death Investigator, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE), Legal Nurse Consultant, Forensic Gerontology Specialist, Forensic Psychiatric Nurse and a Correctional Nursing Specialist. Forensic nursing is a growing industry in the field of nursing. More and more nurses are being drawn to it. Nursing schools are also taking notice of this need. Forensic Nurse Programs are now being offered in nursing schools.
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Global Warming

Global Warming, aside from pollution is one of the biggest scientist’s concerns. Global Warming is the term used to describe increase in the temperature of the Earth. It is the process which is continuously warming the earth. The Earth's surface temperature has risen by about one degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated warming during the past three decades. There is stronger evidence and proof that most of the warming over the last fifty years is attributable to activities of human. Human activities have changed the chemical composition of the atmosphere and environment through the buildup of greenhouse gases, which are main cause of Global Warming.
There are four steps in the Greenhouse effect, which are, Ultraviolet rays from the sun, through space, to earth’s atmosphere. The sunlight enters the atmosphere and hits Earth. Some of sunlight turns into heat energy in the form of infrared light. The heat gets impregnated by enclosing air and land, which in turn makes it hot. Infrared rays that are remitted into the atmosphere are captured by greenhouse gases. The gas then absorbs the light and is sent back to the surface of Earth and warms it even more.
“According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Earth's surface temperature has risen by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated warming during the past two decades. There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities. Human activities have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases – primarily carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. The heat-trapping property of these gases is undisputed although uncertainties exist about exactly how earth’s climate responds to them.”
Methane and carbon dioxide are some of the naturally occurring greenhouse gases. This is the manner in which the Earth keeps itself temperate enough for humans to live on it. The only concern with this is that humans are enhancing the process even further and it will result in Global Warming. Over the past many years the emissions of greenhouse gases have been multiplying due to the rapid growth in technology that humans have perfected like, factories which are emitting such dangerous gases which includes methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and ozone depleting substances such as CFCs, also known as Hydro-fluorocarbons, Chlorofluorocarbons, and Per-fluorocarbons.
Basically global warming is the ascent of the earth’s surface temperature due to chemicals in the atmosphere. The threats that global warming brings along with it includes: affecting the climate of the Earth and even the health of the people. This also includes altering of crop seasons. Global warming also affects the way organisms survive on the planet.
Signs and Effects:
A large amount of the United States is probable to warm, even though sulfates possibly will limit warming in a few areas. Scientists at present are not capable to decide which pieces of the United States will turn out to be wetter or drier, but there is probability to be a general tendency in the direction of augmented rainfall and evaporation, added powerful thunderstorms, and drier top soils.
Regrettably, several of the potentially most significant influences depend upon whether rainfall augments or reduces, which cannot be dependably probable for exact regions.
Global warming also causes many of the glaciers that are floating in the Greenland and Arctic to melt. This in turn causes the sea levels to rise throughout the world. In the last hundred years alone the seas around the world have risen from four to ten inches, which is a great change.
All the way through the world, the occurrence of meticulous illnesses and additional pressures to human health depend mainly on local weather. Tremendous warmth can directly source the loss of life. Furthermore, quite a few grave diseases merely come into view in warm areas. Lastly, warm temperatures can augment air and water pollution, which in turn harm human health.
The largest part of direct effect of climate change would be the influence of hotter temperatures themselves. Tremendously hot temperatures augment the figure of people who die on a specified day for a lot of motives: People with heart problems are helpless for the reason that one's cardiovascular system ought to work harder to be the body cool all through hot weather. Heat tiredness and a few respiratory troubles amplify. Higher air temperatures in addition augment the attentiveness of ozone at ground level. The ordinary layer of ozone in the higher atmosphere blocks damaging ultraviolet emission from reaching the earth's surface, but in the lower atmosphere, ozone is a harmful pollutant. Ozone damages lung tissue and sources exacting troubles for people with asthma and other lung diseases. Even modest experience to ozone can source healthy persons to experience chest pains, nausea, and pulmonary congestion. In to a large extent of the nation, a warming of four degrees (F) possibly will augment ozone attention by about 5 percent.
Statistics on humanity and hospital admissions demonstrate that death rates augment at some stage in extremely hot days, mainly between very old and very young people existing in cities. In July 1995, a heat wave killed more than 700 people in the Chicago area alone. Studies based on these types of statistics guess that in Atlanta, for instance, even a warming of about two degrees (F) would augment heat-related deaths from 78 today to wherever from 96 to 247 people per year. If people are able to put in air conditioning and otherwise become accustomed themselves to the hotter temperatures, the lower estimation is more probable.
Warmer temperatures might reduce the number of people who die each year from cold weather. On the other hand, in the United States, only 1000 people die from the cold every year, at the same time as twice that many die as of the heat.
Nasty Surprises:
Some of the ways that Earth may respond to global warming could be gradual; others could be rapid. By continuing to add greenhouse gases to the air, we may be surprised by some nasty changes.
Escaping Methane:
As the Arctic warms, massive quantities of methane at the present iced up under the ocean and land possibly will flee into the air. For the reason that methane is a greenhouse gas that catches heat in the atmosphere, these added emissions could cause the Earth to temperate even faster than at present anticipated.
Water Resources:
Varying climate is predictable to augment both evaporation and rainfall in the main regions of the United States. In those regions where evaporation augments more than rainfall, soil will turn out to be drier, lake levels will drop, and rivers will bear less water.
Inferior River flows and lower lake levels possibly will damage map-reading, hydroelectric power generation, and water quality, and decrease the provisions of water accessible for agricultural, residential, and industrial uses. A number of regions possibly will experience equally augmented flooding all through winter and spring, as well as lower supplies all through summer. In California's Central Valley, for instance, melting snow provides much of the summer water supply; warmer temperatures would source the snow to melt earlier and consequently decrease summer materials even if rainfall amplified throughout the spring. More normally, the inclination for rainfall (see climate trends) to be more concerted in large storms as temperatures increase would be inclined to augment river flooding, devoid of rising the quantity of water accessible.
Food and Water:
A number of regions might profit. Warming might increase in length the increasing season and budge agricultural zones northward. Crop production would augment in northern Europe and Canada.
Soils in the center regions of continents might turn out to be drier in summer. These drier circumstances coupled with global warming might show the way to lower crop yields. Corn production in the U.S. possibly will drop for the reason of this inclination.
Warming possibly will source earlier mountain snow melt, which would change the timing of water storage in reservoirs, augment the jeopardy of spring flooding and diminish water supplies in summer.
Shifts in climate zones might carry new crop pests to some areas. More livestock might develop into defenseless to ailment.
Changes in Global Harvest:
Climate alteration might to the highest degree have an effect on global food supply and demand for the reason that heat, light and water are the major drivers of agricultural production. Hot, dry regions already hard put to grow sufficient food nowadays might be specially damaging.
To calculate approximately the contact of global warming on future harvests, scientists build computer simulations, or models, of climate, crops and market situations. The models are first tested with present-day environment, and then utilized to foresee probable future alterations. Present models, although imperfect, forecast that alterations in rainwater and temperature would differ from region to region. Such changes would be probable to change food production and international trade.
Future Effects and Spread:
Global warming possibly will moreover augment the danger of a number of contagious diseases, predominantly those diseases that simply come into view in temperate areas. Diseases that are spread by mosquitoes and added insects possibly will develop into more common if warmer temperatures allowed those insects to develop into recognized beyond north; such "vector-borne" diseases comprise malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and encephalitis.
“The US Environmental Protection Agency has recently released the Climate Action Report 2002. The report considers in depth the effects, which Global Warming will have on the US, and it's being called a significant reversal of administration policy. For the first time, through this report, the Bush Administration is acknowledging that human actions, specifically the emission of greenhouse gases, are responsible for the effects of Global Warming which are currently being felt across the US, and around the world. The report contends that the environment in the US will be substantially changed over the next few decades, with high likelihood for disruption of snow-fed water supplies, more heat waves, and the permanent disappearance of Rocky Mountain meadows and coastal marshes. However, there are no new plans for dealing with these problems. In fact, the report recommends adapting to these inevitable changes.”
A number of scientists consider that algal blooms possibly will take place more regularly as temperatures warm — chiefly in areas with contaminated waters — in which case diseases such as cholera that lean to accompany algal blooms possibly will turn out to be more common.
Global warming will also cause some of the glaciers that are floating in the Greenland and Arctic to melt. This in turn will cause the sea levels to rise throughout the world. Part of the West Antarctic ice sheet rests unsteadily on the sea floor. As the sea warms, the ice might turn out to be weakened, break up and melt. As a consequence, over the next 300 years sea level would rise more rapidly than at present forecasted.
Salmon and cold-water fish such as trout are expected to suffer substantially and may also disappear from large areas of their current geographic range. Several species trying to flee hot water by migrating to north or to higher elevations may become extinct due to man-made or natural barriers blocking their routes.
Warmer water temperatures might direct to alterations in the course of major ocean currents. Their paths establish the sharing of ocean temperatures and nutrients that maintain marine life. If the currents were to alter their route, the complete marine environment can be disturbed. Atmospheric upheaval and commotion brought on by the added warming will yield more intense and extreme storms and larger death tolls. Some areas, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, will dry out and a greater occurrence of thunderbolt strikes will set enormous forest fires.
The burning of the Earth by natural and man-made forest fires will heap extra quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Alteration in temperature and rainfall brought on by global warming will in turn modify the composition of the forests. At the current rate of ruin and desolation, most of the rain forests will be gone by the middle of the next century.
Global warming could stimulate and influence large, sudden and uninvited climatic changes that could seriously affect ecosystems and human society in a very serious way.
Some nations will probably experience more unpleasant effects than others, while other nations might profit more than others. Poorer nations are usually more defenseless to the consequences of global warming. These nations tend to be extra reliant on climate-sensitive sectors, such as continuation agriculture, and deficient in the capital to shield themselves against the changes that global warming might bring. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has recognized Africa as “the continent most vulnerable to the impacts of projected changes because widespread poverty limits adaptation capabilities”.
Global warming could stimulate and influence large, sudden and uninvited climatic changes that could seriously affect ecosystems and human society in a very serious way.
Not long ago, most debate and argument of global warming has presumed that change would occur progressively, with average temperatures tediously increasing over the next century.
In order to control and avoid the effects of global warming we must first agree with a fact that it is occurring, and take some measures to end or even reduce it. We must stop burning the trees and we must also stop polluting the air.
There is only one way to end global warming before it becomes a real threat to human life. That is to stop emitting the greenhouse gases that are main cause of global warming.
Faraz Akhter
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